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Poultry

Mycoplasmsis

Definition

Infectious disease caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms).

Clinical signs

Mg:coughing, sneezing and snoring. Mucus production in the nasal passages, trachea and lungs. In layers: low egg production along with poor quality.

Diagnosis

Laboratory: rapid plate agglutination test. Serological ELISA test. In case the test reports unsatisfactory results try DNA test.

Treatment

Tylvalosin + Chlortetracycline.

Prevention and Control

Serological biosafety and monitoring actions. Vaccination: live vaccine strain F (nasal, ocularly, spraying or oral route -drinking water-) TS-11 strain (ocularly) and 6/85 strain (spray).

Necrotic Enteritis

Definition

Infectious disease caused by Clostridum perfringes (Cp), it manifests as an acute or chronic enterotoxemia, with destruction of intestinal mucosa.

Clinical Signs

Depressed and packed together. It can show mild enteritis. Sudden death. Future production shortfalls on meat and eggs.

Diagnosis

Laboratory: Histological findings: through stained swabs of intestinal mucosa, coagulation necrosis in the top third or in the middle portion of the intestine. Cp strains could be isolated and cultured from intestinal contains.

Treatment

Tyvalosin + Chlortetracycline.
Amoxicillin + Colistin.

Prevention and Control

Strict sanitary control. Avoid abrupt feeding changes. Analyze drinking water samples, monitor feed components and define possible contaminants that alter intestinal motility.

ORT

Definition

Infectious disease caused by Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), it causes primarly and secondary respiratory disease.

Clinical Signs

Stunted growth in chikens of less than 3 weeks, respiratory mild signs and increased mortalities. In layers and breeders there might be reduce of egg production along with poor quality.

Diagnosis

Laboratory: it might be posible to culture ORT in bood agar (5-10% of goat erytrocites) with antibiotics (gentamicin and polymyxin B) that inhibit contaminant flora and microairphile.

Treatment

Tylvalosin and tylvalosin + chloritetracycline.

Prevention and Control

Vaccination with inactivated virus.

Colisepticimia (Colibacillosis)

Definition

Infectious disease caused by E.coli and its septic metabolic products.

Clinical Signs

Digestive form: diarrhea (wet bed) and poor assimilation of feed. Respiratory form: variable, depending on the severity of the air sacs condition. Occasionally, leg problems due to joint damage.

Diagnosis

Differential clinical diagnosis (Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, avian infectious laryngeal tracheitis, infectious coriza, avian cholera). Laboratory diagnosis (serological and bacteriological)

Treatment

Amoxicillin + Colistin (in drinking water). Also: Trimethoprim + Sulfonamide (in drinking water). Gentamicin could be used orally.
Tylvalosin + chloritetracycline.

Prevention and Control

Good biosafety practices in the farm. Keep low pH level in the digestive sytem of the birds. Vaccination: emulsified E. coli bacterin.

Infectious Synovitis

Definition

Diseased caused by Micoplasma synoviae, Microorganism that damages synovial membranes.

Clinical Signs

Mild respiratory problems. Air saculitis and, above else, sinovitis along with joint edema in the sole of the feet and wings, sometimes it is coupled with sternal sac inflammation.

Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis (viral arthritis and staphylococcical arthritis). Lab diagnosis: Agglutination plate test to identify infectious synovitis antibiodies.

Treatment

Tylvalosin + Chlortetracycline

Prevention and Control

Biosafety and sero-monitoring. Vaccination: live virus vaccine, strains MS-H, ocular delivery.

Fowl or avian cholera (avian pasteurellosis - avian hemorrhagic septicemia)

Definition

Infectious disease caused by Pasteurela multocida it can manifest as: peracute, acute and chronic forms.

Clinical Signs

Peracute: sudden death, without signs. Acute: depression, anorexia, purulent discharge, cyanosis and diarrhea. Chronic: face and chin inflammation, depression, conjunctivitis, lameness and torticollis.

Diagnosis

Field diagnosis: sudden death, necropsy findings (liver inflammation with necrotic foci, bilateral cuprous pleuropneumonia). Lab diagnosis: bacteria isolation, smears with Giemsa stain or methylene blue, PCR.

Treatment

Tylvalosin + chlortetracycline and tetracycline in drinking water.

Prevention and Control

Early removal of animal carcasses (sudden death). Disinfection and cleaning of facilities and equipment. Usage of bacterines in endemic areas.

Omphalitis

Definition

Navel infectious disease produced by bacteria that affects the yolk-sac, due to contamination through the eggshell or bird navel during birth, E. coli is one of the main disease agent.

Clinical Signs

Depressed chickens, ruffled plumaje, hard abdomen, inflammation and scarring in the navel. Likely death. Diarrheas between day 15 – 20 of life.

Diagnosis

Differential (salmonelosis, aspergillosis and others). Lab: liver and yolk-sac samples to bacteriological analysis.

Treatment

Tylvalosin + chloritetracycline.

Prevention and Control

Comply strictly with health/hygiene programs and with the functioning of the hatchery, permanent temperature control, humidity, ventilation and disinfection of the facility.

Coccidiosis

Definition

Parasitic disease caused by protozoan species from the genus Eimeria, phylum Apicomplexa that affects birds in any productive stage, in the intestinal tract, they produce enteritis and diarrhea.

Clinical Signs

It depends on the agent. Diarrhea (mild and bloody) is pretty common. Dehydration, apathy, drowsiness, anemia and layers reduce egg production. High morbidity and mortality.

Diagnosis

Differential (ulcerative enteritis, necrotic enteritis, histomoniasis, infectious bursal disease, feed intoxication, pullorosis). Lab: microscopic examination of the intestinal wall and its contents. Oocysts count in feces.

Tratamiento

Preventive: coccidiostasts – Curative: Coccidicidal. It is useful the treatment with sulfonamides.
Tylvalosin + chloritetracycline.

Prevention and Control

Conditions of the facility production: soil and bed type. Environmental influences: ventilation, humidity and temperatura. Prevention with live vaccines.

Salmonelosis

Definition

Zoonotic and highly contagious disease that causes great economic losses, it is caused by Salmonella gallinarum (typhoid), salmonella pullorum (pullorosis) , Salmonella typhimurium and S. enteriditis (paratyphoid).

Clinical Signs

Typhoid: sudden death, yellowish foul-smelling diarrhea, anorexia, weakness and high mortality. Pullorosis: in baby chickens the form is acute, with mortality above 40%, poor appetite, weakness, drooping wings, ruffled feathers. Whitish diarrhea. Paratyphoid: similar to pullorosis.

Diagnosis

Differential: in typhoid (Newcastle and avian cholera), in pullorosis (infectious bronchitis and aspergillosis), in paratyphoid (typhoid and pullorosis). Laboratory: bacteriological examination of liver, spleen, lungs, ovaries, gall bladder and heart samples. Serological examen: agglutination, haemagglutination and agglutination test with hemoaglutinin.

Treatment

Amoxicillin + colistin

Prevention and Control

GMP – GHP. Competitive exclusion (probiotics use), acidifyings substances, prebiotics and administer of live and attenuated vaccines.